Which skeletal abnormalities are typical for Down syndrome?
The most common musculoskeletal effects of Down syndrome include weak muscle tone (hypotonia) and ligaments that are too loose (ligament laxity). This leads to excessive joint flexibility.
How does Down syndrome affect the skeleton?
Several musculoskeletal abnormalities are associated with Down syndrome, including hypermobility of the joints, as well as low bone density, resulting in frequent fractures of both long bones & vertebral bodies in this population. Hypermobility is a combined effect of muscle hypotonia and excessive ligamentous laxity.
What are 4 characteristics of Down syndrome?
Short neck, with excess skin at the back of the neck. Flattened facial profile and nose. Small head, ears, and mouth. Upward slanting eyes, often with a skin fold that comes out from the upper eyelid and covers the inner corner of the eye.
What physical characteristic is typical of Down syndrome?
A few of the common physical traits of Down syndrome are low muscle tone, small stature, an upward slant to the eyes, and a single deep crease across the center of the palm – although each person with Down syndrome is a unique individual and may possess these characteristics to different degrees, or not at all.
What body parts does Down syndrome affect?
Down syndrome is a genetic disorder that can affect many different parts of the body. An extra part or whole Chromosome 21 is the cause of Down syndrome. It is the most common chromosomal abnormality. This syndrome can affect the heart, the brain, the hormone system and the skeleton.
Are Down syndrome double jointed?
Trisomy 21 Program
They are able to move at their joints in extreme ways. This is one reason they are so flexible and are often referred to as “double jointed.” They don’t actually have double joints, but have excessive movement and ligamentous laxity.
How does Down syndrome affect a child physically?
Children with Down Syndrome tend to have quite floppy muscles (hypotonia or low muscle tone). This makes it harder for them to move and can affect all aspects of their physical development.
What part of the brain is affected by Down syndrome?
Previous structural brain imaging studies have shown that the frontal lobes and cerebellum are disproportionately small in adults with DS. The parietal lobes and the sub-cortical region known as the basal ganglia have been shown to be relatively spared in DS.
How does Down syndrome affect the nervous system?
Down’s syndrome has manifestations in many systems. The syndrome has many neurological complications, which include structural changes, mental retardation, young-onset Alzheimer’s disease, strokes and basal ganglia damage. Epileptic seizures are more prevalent in Down’s syndrome patients than in the general population.
What are the behaviors of Down syndrome?
A young child with Down syndrome that presents with persistent oppositional, impulsive, disruptive, irritable, and aggressive behaviors should be considered under a possible mood disorder.
What are the 3 types of Down syndrome?
There are three types of Down syndrome:
- Trisomy 21. This is by far the most common type, where every cell in the body has three copies of chromosome 21 instead of two.
- Translocation Down syndrome. In this type, each cell has part of an extra chromosome 21, or an entirely extra one. …
- Mosaic Down syndrome.
What are the specific symptoms of Down syndrome?
What is Down Syndrome?
- A flattened face, especially the bridge of the nose.
- Almond-shaped eyes that slant up.
- A short neck.
- Small ears.
- A tongue that tends to stick out of the mouth.
- Tiny white spots on the iris (colored part) of the eye.
- Small hands and feet.
- A single line across the palm of the hand (palmar crease)