Where do the chromosomes that an individual have come from?
Normally, each cell in the human body has 23 pairs of chromosomes (46 total chromosomes). Half come from the mother; the other half come from the father. Two of the chromosomes (the X and the Y chromosome) determine your sex as male or female when you are born.
What are individual chromosomes called?
In replication, the DNA molecule is copied, and the two molecules are known as chromatids. During the later stages of cell division these chromatids separate longitudinally to become individual chromosomes. Chromatid pairs are normally genetically identical, and said to be homozygous.
What does a centrosome look like?
Centrosomes are made up of two, barrel-shaped clusters of microtubules called “centrioles” and a complex of proteins that help additional microtubules to form. This complex is also known as the microtubule-organizing center (MTOC), since it helps organize the spindle fibers during mitosis.
Where and how are chromosomes formed?
Answer: In the nucleus of each cell, the DNA molecule is packaged into thread-like structures called chromosomes. Each chromosome is made up of DNA tightly coiled many times around proteins called histones that support its structure.
How does DNA become a chromosome?
As shown in the animation, a DNA molecule wraps around histone proteins to form tight loops called nucleosomes. These nucleosomes coil and stack together to form fibers called chromatin. Chromatin, in turn, loops and folds with the help of additional proteins to form chromosomes.