How the body systems and body cells are affected by Down syndrome?
In Down syndrome, every cell in the body has an extra chromosome (or piece of a chromosome). The effect of this extra DNA varies, but commonly people who have Down syndrome have mental disability, atypical facial structure, and physical defects, especially heart defects.
How does Down syndrome affect the skeletal system?
In many children with Down syndrome, the muscles and ligaments that support the neck are weak and loose. This can potentially cause spinal cord compression, in which the small bones in the neck (vertebrae) press on the spinal cord. Compression may lead to reduced muscle coordination, numbness, and weakness.
Does Down syndrome affect the endocrine system?
Children with Down syndrome, or Trisomy 21, have a higher likelihood of developing endocrine disorders than the general population. Hypothyroidism is the most common endocrine disorder in Down syndrome. About 10 percent of children with Down syndrome are diagnosed with congenital or acquired hypothyroidism.
Does Down syndrome affect the nervous system?
Down’s syndrome has manifestations in many systems. The syndrome has many neurological complications, which include structural changes, mental retardation, young-onset Alzheimer’s disease, strokes and basal ganglia damage. Epileptic seizures are more prevalent in Down’s syndrome patients than in the general population.
What part of the brain is affected by Down syndrome?
Previous structural brain imaging studies have shown that the frontal lobes and cerebellum are disproportionately small in adults with DS. The parietal lobes and the sub-cortical region known as the basal ganglia have been shown to be relatively spared in DS.
Does Down syndrome affect the phenotype?
Down syndrome is characterized by extensive phenotypic variability; while cognitive impairment, muscle hypotonia at birth, and dysmorphic features occur to some extent in all affected individuals, most associated traits occur in only a fraction of affected individuals.
How does Down syndrome affect a child physically?
Children with Down Syndrome tend to have quite floppy muscles (hypotonia or low muscle tone). This makes it harder for them to move and can affect all aspects of their physical development.
Why does Down syndrome occur in hypothyroidism?
It is more likely that people who have Down’s syndrome will develop hypothyroidism as they grow up and get older. This usually happens because of autoimmunity (the body’s defence system attacks itself, this is sometimes also called Hashimoto’s hypothyroidism) although there can be other causes.
What is the difference between Mosaic Down syndrome and Down syndrome?
Doctors and researchers use the term “mosaicism” to describe a mix of cells in the body. While people with the more common trisomy 21 Down syndrome have an extra chromosome in all of their cells, people with mosaic Down syndrome only have the extra chromosome in some cells.
Is Down syndrome structural or functional?
Down syndrome (DS) is the most common chromosomal abnormality occurring in humans. Up to 77% of DS children have associated gastrointestinal (GI) abnormalities, which may be structural or functional in nature.
Is the nervous system?
Your nervous system uses specialized cells called neurons to send signals, or messages, all over your body. These electrical signals travel between your brain, skin, organs, glands and muscles. The messages help you move your limbs and feel sensations, such as pain.
Is Down syndrome a brain disorder?
Down syndrome, the most common chromosome-related genetic condition in the U.S., affects development of the brain and body. People with Down syndrome face physical and mental challenges, but can lead full and happy lives.