How the body systems and body cells are affected by Down syndrome?
In Down syndrome, every cell in the body has an extra chromosome (or piece of a chromosome). The effect of this extra DNA varies, but commonly people who have Down syndrome have mental disability, atypical facial structure, and physical defects, especially heart defects.
How does Down syndrome affect the muscular system?
In many children with Down syndrome, the muscles and ligaments that support the neck are weak and loose. This can potentially cause spinal cord compression, in which the small bones in the neck (vertebrae) press on the spinal cord. Compression may lead to reduced muscle coordination, numbness, and weakness.
How does Down syndrome affect the nervous system?
Down’s syndrome has manifestations in many systems. The syndrome has many neurological complications, which include structural changes, mental retardation, young-onset Alzheimer’s disease, strokes and basal ganglia damage. Epileptic seizures are more prevalent in Down’s syndrome patients than in the general population.
What happens to the body of a person with Down syndrome?
In Down syndrome, there are three copies, either complete or partial, of chromosome 21. The characteristics of Down syndrome include low muscle tone, short stature, a flat nasal bridge, and a protruding tongue. People with Down syndrome have a higher risk of some conditions, including Alzheimer’s disease and epilepsy.
How does Down syndrome affect the endocrine system?
Individuals with DS have higher rates of thyroid dysfunction. Abnormalities include subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH; also referred to as hyperthyrotropinemia), congenital hypothyroidism (CH), and thyroid autoimmunity such as Hashimoto’s Disease (HD) or Grave’s Disease (GD).
What part of the brain is affected by Down syndrome?
Previous structural brain imaging studies have shown that the frontal lobes and cerebellum are disproportionately small in adults with DS. The parietal lobes and the sub-cortical region known as the basal ganglia have been shown to be relatively spared in DS.
How does Down syndrome affect a child physically?
Children with Down Syndrome tend to have quite floppy muscles (hypotonia or low muscle tone). This makes it harder for them to move and can affect all aspects of their physical development.
Why does Down syndrome affect the body?
Down syndrome is a genetic disorder caused when abnormal cell division results in an extra full or partial copy of chromosome 21. This extra genetic material causes the developmental changes and physical features of Down syndrome.
Is Down Syndrome structural or functional?
Down syndrome (DS) is the most common chromosomal abnormality occurring in humans. Up to 77% of DS children have associated gastrointestinal (GI) abnormalities, which may be structural or functional in nature.
What are the mental effects of Down syndrome?
The most common mental health concerns include: general anxiety, repetitive and obsessive-compulsive behaviors; oppositional, impulsive, and inattentive behaviors; sleep related difficulties; depression; autism spectrum conditions; and neuropsychological problems characterized by progressive loss of cognitive skills.