What is the molecular composition of a chromosome?
The major chemical components of the chromosome are DNA, RNA (nucleic acids), and proteins (histones and nonhistones). There is, in addition, calcium, which seems to be associated with the DNA (Barton, 1951, Mazia, 1954a).
Why is chromosome morphology important?
Chromosome morphology can assign specific groups to specific chromosomes, and for favorable species, genes to a specific chromosome arm. The chromosomes of most fungal species, however, are notoriously small and difficult to count.
What is the meaning of Chromomere?
: one of the small bead-shaped and heavily staining masses of coiled chromatin that are linearly arranged along the chromosome.
What are genes made up?
Genes are made up of DNA. Some genes act as instructions to make molecules called proteins. However, many genes do not code for proteins. In humans, genes vary in size from a few hundred DNA bases to more than 2 million bases.
What stage of mitosis is chromosome morphology?
Next, chromosomes assume their most compacted state during metaphase, when the centromeres of all the cell’s chromosomes line up at the equator of the spindle. Metaphase is particularly useful in cytogenetics, because chromosomes can be most easily visualized at this stage.
What is somatic cell cycle?
A somatic cell is a general term for a body cell: all human cells, except for the cells that produce eggs and sperm (which are referred to as germ cells), are somatic cells. … The cell cycle has two major phases: interphase and the mitotic phase. During interphase, the cell grows and DNA is replicated.
What are the 2 main types of chromosomes?
Among many organisms that have separate sexes, there are two basic types of chromosomes: sex chromosomes and autosomes. Autosomes control the inheritance of all the characteristics except the sex-linked ones, which are controlled by the sex chromosomes. Humans have 22 pairs of autosomes and one pair of sex chromosomes.